Palæstinenserne

Hvem er Palæstinenserne?

– Lad os se sandheden i øjnene

Premierminister Golda Meir skabte i 1969 overskrifter, da hun udtalte følgende til The Sunday Times:

“Det palæstinensiske folk findes ikke. Det er jo ikke fordi vi kom og smed dem ud, og tog deres land. De eksisterede ikke til at begynde med…”


Golda Meirs udtalelse var kontroversiel, men det skulle vise sig, at mange arabiske ledere og historikere gav hende ret.

I 1937 fortalte den lokale arabiske leder, Auni Bey-Hadi, Peel-kommissionen, som i sidste ende foreslog delingen af Palæstina, at

“der ikke findes et land, der hedder Palæstina”.


I 1946 afgav den arabisk-amerikanske historiker fra Princeton University, Prof. Philip Hitti, vidneudsagn overfor den engelsk-amerikanske komite, hvor han sagde:

“Der er ikke noget, historisk, der hedder ‘Palæstina’ – overhovedet ikke. Faktisk, så nævnes Palæstina ikke specifikt i koranen. Det kaldes i stedet for ‘det hellige land’.”


I 1956 udtalte en saudiarabisk repræsentant ved FN: “Det er et velkendt faktum, at Palæstina ikke er mere end det sydlige Syrien.

“Hvis man skal kigge på nyere udtalelser, så belærte Syriens diktator, Hafez Al-Assad, Yassir Arafat, ved at sige: “Glem aldrig dette: Det palæstinensiske folk findes ikke. Der er ingen palæstinensisk enhed… Palæstina er en integreret del af Syrien.”


I 1981 udtalte Kong Hussein af Jordan: “Sandheden er, at Jordan er Palæstina, og Palæstina er Jordan.”


Ved Peel-kommissionen i 1936, tilbød den britiske regering for første gang delingen af landområdet kaldet Palæstina, i en jødisk del og en arabisk del. Alle, der levede i dette britiske mandatområde, kaldte sig for palæstinensere – alle!


I dag har araberne taget Palæstina til sig, og gjort den til deres nation, men dette er ikke historisk korrekt. Denne rendyrkede fiktion har ikke forhindret mange regeringer i at acceptere den, og det har heller ikke forhindret politikere og medier i konstant at angribe Israel for ikke at “tilbagelevere” palæstinensisk “land” til det palæstinensiske “folk.”


Faktum er, at det såkaldte palæstinensiske “land” og “folk”, som vi kender dem i dag, er et latterligt historisk fupnummer.

De sidste 60 års fantastiske arabiske propagandakampagner rettet mod politikere og medier er, med stor succes, blevet slugt med hud og hår.


Man kan kun gå ud fra, at denne accept af en total usandhed kan have noget at gøre med, at FN erklærede, at det jødiske folk skulle vende tilbage til dets hjemland. Kan dette faktum virkelig have været så usmagelig for så mange?


Ville reaktionen have været den samme for et hvilket som helst andet folkefærd end det, der altid er blevet forfulgt gennem historien?

Der er et land i Mellemøsten. Det folk, der har boet der i mange århundreder, kalder det for “Eretz Israel” – Israels Land. Det er på tid at se sandheden i øjnene.


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Palæstinensere
Frem til staten Israels selvstændighed i 1948 blev benævnelsen palæstinensere af og til brugt om indbyggerne i det daværende britiske mandatområde, Palæstina – hvad enten de var jøder eller arabere. Fra 1948 skelnede man så mellem jøder og arabere – om indbyggerne i Staten Israel brugte man dog betegnelsen israelere.


Først helt op midt i 1960erne, hvor de palæstinensiske arabere begyndte at formulere en national politik, begyndte man at bruge benævnelsen palæstinensere på de arabere, der havde eller havde haft bopæl inden for det oprindelige mandatområde. Indtil 1960erne eksisterede der altså ikke nogen palæstinensisk identitet – kun en arabisk, og det er kendetegnende, at det er en egypter, Yasser Arafat, der ståede i spidsen for PLO, den palæstinensiske befrielsesorganisation. (Arafat døde, efter længere tids sygdom tidligt om morgenen, torsdag den 11. november 2004 på et militærhospital i Paris.


Den palæstinensiske befolkning er bosiddende i Israel, i Judæa og Samaria (Vestbredden), i Gaza og ikke mindst i Jordan, hvor 80 procent af befolkningen er palæstinensiske arabere.


Palæstina
Ordet kendes fra Bibelen fra den græske benævnelse for folkeslaget Philistrene, som altid lå i kamp mod israelitterne, og er en gammel benævnelse for området mellem Syrien og Egypten og mellem Middelhavet og Jordanfloden – det der stort set i dag er det moderne Israel. Efter at have slået det 2. jødiske oprør ned i 135 e.v.t. ændrede romerne landets navn fra Judea til Palestina. Da dels tyrkerne og dels briterne overtog området benævntes det ligeledes Palæstina.


PLO
(Den Palæstinensiske Befrielsesorganisation)
En paraplyorganisation, formet af grupper som Fatah, Den Marxistiske Folkefront til Palæstinas Befrielse og adskillige andre smågrupper. PLO blev stiftet i 1964 på den første arabiske konference, og blev oprindelig helt kontrolleret af de øvrige arabiske stater indtil organisationen i 1967 blev helt selvstændig. Fra og med 1969 var egypteren Yasser Arafat leder af organisationen (Arafat døde i november 2004), som fra starten havde til formål at slette Israel fra verdenskortet.

PNF
(Palæstinas Nationale Front)
Stiftet i januar 1973 for at koordinere den palæstinensiske nationale modstand mod israelerne. Gruppen blev forbudt af Israel i 1978.


PPP
(Palæstinas Folkeparti)
En venstrefløjsorganisation inden for PLO. Stiftet i 1982 som Palæstinas Kommunistiske Parti, men skiftede navn i 1991. Gruppen støtter Oslo-Aftalen og opfordrer PLO til at samarbejde med alle muslimske grupper.


PA
(De Palæstinensiske Myndigheder)
Lederskabet af de palæstinensiske selvstyreområder, Judæa og Samaria (Vestbredden) og Gaza, fra hvilke Israel i overensstemmelse med Gaza-Jericho-aftalen i 1994 og Oslo-Aftalen i 1995 mere eller mindre havde trukket sig tilbage fra – faktisk lige frem til Intifadaen (den palæstinensiske opstand) begyndte i år 2000. Ledelsen af PA blev efter valget den 25. januar 2006 overtaget af bevægelsen

Hamas.


PLC
(Palæstinas Lovgivende Råd)
Grundlagt i 1964 som PLOs militære gren, og ledet af Yasser Arafat. Efter Oslo kom dette råd under lederskab af PA.
Palæstinas Nationale Fond
En fond for palæstinensiske skatter og gaver fra andre arabiske personer og lande. Under lederskab af en direktion, som er udpeget af PLOs eksekutiv-kommite.


Palæstinas Nationale Frelses Front
Stiftet i marts 1985 af PFLP og pro-Syriske grupperinger i Damaskus. Denne front er en paraplyorganisation, der modsat sig Yasser Arafats lederskab da han levet.


Palæstinensiske flygtninge
Omkring 600.000 palæstinensiske arabere flygtede fra Israel i årene 1947 til 1949 – i årene, hvor Israel fik sin selvstændighed. Araberne afviste FNs delingsplan for området, og en række arabiske stater gik til angreb på den nye jødiske stat. Fra disse arabiske ledere blev de palæstinensiske arabere opfordret til at flygte, sådan at de ikke ville lide skade, når de arabiske hære strømmede ind i Israel. En anden årsag til flugten var frygt for den israelske hær.


En stor del af araberne blev dog i Israel, og de er i dag israelske statsborgere med fulde rettigheder og repræsenteret i det israelske parlament, Knesset. Der er cirka en million palæstinensiske arabere inden for Israels grænser i dag. En stor del af de, der flygtede – samt deres efterkommere – bor i dag dels i Gaza, dels i Judæa og Samaria (Vestbredden). Yderligere omkring 360.000 flygtede fra disse områder efter Israels sejr i Seksdageskrigen i 1967.


PCC
(PLOs Centrale Råd)
Rådet blev etableret i juni 1970 som det næsthøjeste råd under PLO. I 1973 blev PCC forbindelsesledet mellem PNC og PLOs eksekutivkommite. For tiden har det centrale råd 124 medlemmer.


PLO-afdelinger
Der er talrige PLO-afdelinger – og nu kaldet ministerier. Den vigtigste er Political Department, som overvåger PLOs arbejde i udlandet. Andre afdelinger beskæftiger sig med flygtninge, kultur og information, sociale områder, uddannelse og folkelige organisationer.


EC
PLOs Eksekutiv-Kommite
Den højeste myndighed inden for PLO. Denne gruppe repræsenterer PLO internationalt og har fuld kontrol over alle underorganisationer samt finanserne. Komiteen har 18 medlemmer, som vælges af PNC.


PLOs Charter
Blev anerkendt af PNC i juli 1968, og består af 33 artikler, som er grundloven for PLO. Også kaldet Det Palæstinensiske National Charther og Palæstinas Grundlov.  Læs hele PLOs charter - herunder:


PLOs Charter af juli 1968

Nedenfor følger på engelsk det officielle dokument af 17. juli 1968. Denne engelske version er officielt godkendt af PLO. Bemærk dog, at PLOs officielle engelske udgave på visse punkter adskiller sig fra den originale version, som er udfærdiget på arabisk. Eksempelvis i Article 15, hvor det på engelsk hedder “the elimination of Zionism”, mens den korrekte engelske oversættelse af det arabiske ville være “the liquidation of the Zionist precense”. Udtrykket “the Zionist precense” er en normal arabisk måde at beskrive Israel på – så denne klausul forlanger altså ødelæggelsen af Israel, og ikke kun en afslutning på zionismen. Hvor det originale arabisk er afgørende, er de arabiske ord indføjet i parantes.)


The PLO Charter

THE PALESTINIAN NATIONAL CHARTER:

Resolutions of the Palestine National Council, July 1-17, 1968


Text of the Charter:

Article 1: Palestine is the homeland of the Arab Palestinian people; it is an indivisible part of the Arab homeland, and the Palestinian people are an integral part of the Arab nation.

Article 2: Palestine, with the boundaries it had during the British Mandate, is an indivisible territorial unit.

Article 3: The Palestinian Arab people possess the legal right to their homeland and have the right to determine their destiny after achieving the liberation of their country in accordance with their wishes and entirely of their own accord and will.

Article 4: The Palestinian identity is a genuine, essential, and inherent characteristic; it is transmitted from parents to children. The Zionist occupation and the dispersal of the Palestinian Arab people, through the disasters which befell them, do not make them lose their Palestinian identity and their membership in the Palestinian community, nor do they negate them.

Article 5: The Palestinians are those Arab nationals who, until 1947, normally resided in Palestine regardless of whether they were evicted from it or have stayed there. Anyone born, after that date, of a Palestinian father – whether inside Palestine or outside it – is also a Palestinian.

Article 6: The Jews who had normally resided in Palestine until the beginning of the Zionist invasion will be considered Palestinians.

Article 7: That there is a Palestinian community and that it has material, spiritual, and historical connection with Palestine are indisputable facts. It is a national duty to bring up individual Palestinians in an Arab revolutionary manner. All means of information and education must be adopted in order to acquaint the Palestinian with his country in the most profound manner, both spiritual and material, that is possible. He must be prepared for the armed struggle and ready to sacrifice his wealth and his life in order to win back his homeland and bring about its liberation.

Article 8: The phase in their history, through which the Palestinian people are now living, is that of national (watani) struggle for the liberation of Palestine. Thus the conflicts among the Palestinian national forces are secondary, and should be ended for the sake of the basic conflict that exists between the forces of Zionism and of imperialism on the one hand, and the Palestinian Arab people on the other. On this basis the Palestinian masses, regardless of whether they are residing in the national homeland or in diaspora (mahajir) constitute – both their organizations and the individuals – one national front working for the retrieval of Palestine and its liberation through armed struggle.

Article 9: Armed struggle is the only way to liberate Palestine. Thus it is the overall strategy, not merely a tactical phase. The Palestinian Arab people assert their absolute determination and firm resolution to continue their armed struggle and to work for an armed popular revolution for the liberation of their country and their return to it. They also assert their right to normal life in Palestine and to exercise their right to self-determination and sovereignty over it.

Article 10: Commando action constitutes the nucleus of the Palestinian popular liberation war. This requires its escalation, comprehensiveness, and the mobilization of all the Palestinian popular and educational efforts and their organization and involvement in the armed Palestinian revolution. It also requires the achieving of unity for the national (watani) struggle among the different groupings of the Palestinian people, and between the Palestinian people and the Arab masses, so as to secure the continuation of the revolution, its escalation, and victory.

Article 11: The Palestinians will have three mottoes: national (wataniyya) unity, national (qawmiyya) mobilization, and liberation.

Article 12: The Palestinian people believe in Arab unity. In order to contribute their share toward the attainment of that objective, however, they must, at the present stage of their struggle, safeguard their Palestinian identity and develop their consciousness of that identity, and oppose any plan that may dissolve or impair it.

Article 13: Arab unity and the liberation of Palestine are two complementary objectives, the attainment of either of which facilitates the attainment of the other. Thus, Arab unity leads to the liberation of Palestine, the liberation of Palestine leads to Arab unity; and work toward the realization of one objective proceeds side by side with work toward the realization of the other.

Article 14: The destiny of the Arab nation, and indeed Arab existence itself, depend upon the destiny of the Palestine cause. From this interdependence springs the Arab nation’s pursuit of, and striving for, the liberation of Palestine. The people of Palestine play the role of the vanguard in the realization of this sacred (qawmi) goal.

Article 15: The liberation of Palestine, from an Arab viewpoint, is a national (qawmi) duty and it attempts to repel the Zionist and imperialist aggression against the Arab homeland, and aims at the elimination of Zionism in Palestine. Absolute responsibility for this falls upon the Arab nation – peoples and governments – with the Arab people of Palestine in the vanguard. Accordingly, the Arab nation must mobilize all its military, human, moral, and spiritual capabilities to participate actively with the Palestinian people in the liberation of Palestine. It must, particularly in the phase of the armed Palestinian revolution, offer and furnish the Palestinian people with all possible help, and material and human support, and make available to them the means and opportunities that will enable them to continue to carry out their leading role in the armed revolution, until they liberate their homeland.

Article 16: The liberation of Palestine, from a spiritual point of view, will provide the Holy Land with an atmosphere of safety and tranquility, which in turn will safeguard the country’s religious sanctuaries and guarantee freedom of worship and of visit to all, without discrimination of race, color, language, or religion. Accordingly, the people of Palestine look to all spiritual forces in the world for support.

Article 17: The liberation of Palestine, from a human point of view, will restore to the Palestinian individual his dignity, pride, and freedom. Accordingly the Palestinian Arab people look forward to the support of all those who believe in the dignity of man and his freedom in the world.

Article 18: The liberation of Palestine, from an international point of view, is a defensive action necessitated by the demands of self-defense. Accordingly the Palestinian people, desirous as they are of the friendship of all people, look to freedom-loving, and peace-loving states for support in order to restore their legitimate rights in Palestine, to re-establish peace and security in the country, and to enable its people to exercise national sovereignty and freedom.

Article 19: The partition of Palestine in 1947 and the establishment of the state of Israel are entirely illegal, regardless of the passage of time, because they were contrary to the will of the Palestinian people and to their natural right in their homeland, and inconsistent with the principles embodied in the Charter of the United Nations, particularly the right to self-determination.

Article 20: The Balfour Declaration, the Mandate for Palestine, and everything that has been based upon them, are deemed null and void. Claims of historical or religious ties of Jews with Palestine are incompatible with the facts of history and the true conception of what constitutes statehood. Judaism, being a religion, is not an independent nationality. Nor do Jews constitute a single nation with an identity of its own; they are citizens of the states to which they belong.

Article 21: The Arab Palestinian people, expressing themselves by the armed Palestinian revolution, reject all solutions which are substitutes for the total liberation of Palestine and reject all proposals aiming at the liquidation of the Palestinian problem, or its internationalization.

Article 22: Zionism is a political movement organically associated with international imperialism and antagonistic to all action for liberation and to progressive movements in the world. It is racist and fanatic in its nature, aggressive, expansionist, and colonial in its aims, and fascist in its methods. Israel is the instrument of the Zionist movement, and geographical base for world imperialism placed strategically in the midst of the Arab homeland to combat the hopes of the Arab nation for liberation, unity, and progress. Israel is a constant source of threat vis-a-vis peace in the Middle East and the whole world. Since the liberation of Palestine will destroy the Zionist and imperialist presence and will contribute to the establishment of peace in the Middle East, the Palestinian people look for the support of all the progressive and peaceful forces and urge them all, irrespective of their affiliations and beliefs, to offer the Palestinian people all aid and support in their just struggle for the liberation of their homeland.

Article 23: The demand of security and peace, as well as the demand of right and justice, require all states to consider Zionism an illegitimate movement, to outlaw its existence, and to ban its operations, in order that friendly relations among peoples may be preserved, and the loyalty of citizens to their respective homelands safeguarded.

Article 24: The Palestinian people believe in the principles of justice, freedom, sovereignty, self-determination, human dignity, and in the right of all peoples to exercise them.

Article 25: For the realization of the goals of this Charter and its principles, the Palestine Liberation Organization will perform its role in the liberation of Palestine in accordance with the Constitution of this Organization.

Article 26: The Palestine Liberation Organization, representative of the Palestinian revolutionary forces, is responsible for the Palestinian Arab people’s movement in its struggle – to retrieve its homeland, liberate and return to it and exercise the right to self-determination in it – in all military, political, and financial fields and also for whatever may be required by the Palestine case on the inter-Arab and international levels.

Article 27: The Palestine Liberation Organization shall cooperate with all Arab states, each according to its potentialities; and will adopt a neutral policy among them in the light of the requirements of the war of liberation; and on this basis it shall not interfere in the internal affairs of any Arab state.

Article 28: The Palestinian Arab people assert the genuineness and independence of their national (wataniyya) revolution and reject all forms of intervention, trusteeship, and subordination.

Article 29: The Palestinian people possess the fundamental and genuine legal right to liberate and retrieve their homeland. The Palestinian people determine their attitude toward all states and forces on the basis of the stands they adopt vis-a-vis to the Palestinian revolution to fulfill the aims of the Palestinian people.

Article 30: Fighters and carriers of arms in the war of liberation are the nucleus of the popular army which will be the protective force for the gains of the Palestinian Arab people.

Article 31: The Organization shall have a flag, an oath of allegiance, and an anthem. All this shall be decided upon in accordance with a special regulation.

Article 32: Regulations, which shall be known as the Constitution of the Palestinian Liberation Organization, shall be annexed to this Charter. It will lay down the manner in which the Organization, and its organs and institutions, shall be constituted; the respective competence of each; and the requirements of its obligation under the Charter.

Article 33: This Charter shall not be amended save by [vote of] a majority of two-thirds of the total membership of the National Congress of the Palestine Liberation Organization [taken] at a special session convened for that purpose.